Colombia is bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by Panama and the Caribbean Sea; and to the west by Ecuador and the Pacific Ocean. Including its Caribbean islands, it lies between latitudes 14°N and 5°S, and longitudes 66° and 82°W. Colombia is the only South American country which borders both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans..
Colombia is ethnically diverse. The interaction between descendants of the original native inhabitants, Spanish colonists, Africans brought as slaves and twentieth-century immigrants from Europe and the Middle East has produced a varied cultural heritage.
The Caribbean people, indigenous to Colombia, experienced a reduction in population due to conquest by the Spanish as well as diseases such as smallpox, from which they had no immunity.
With the risk that the land was deserted, the Spanish Crown sold properties to the governors, conquerors and their descendants creating large farms and possession of mines. Also to protect the indigenous population decimated, Indian reservations were created. The repopulation was achieved by allowing colonization by farmers and their families who came from Spain. With this began the colonial period and the contributions of wealth to the emerging Spanish Golden Empire.
Colombia remains the world’s largest producer of cocaine. Although in the surface all appears under control, one get the feeling that crime is alive and well and lots of remote areas are out-of-bounds for the traveler.
Although the country is very rich in resources more than half of the population live below the poverty line with little indication of change in the near future.